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Race and Ethnicity Measurement and Reporting

Race is defined as a human population considered distinct based on inherited physical characteristics. It is important to note, however, that race is predominantly a social construct, and that genetic science has determined that only 2 percent of our genes are ultimately responsible for the visible differences such as skin color.

Ethnicity is a term that refers to social groups with a shared history, sense of identity, geography and cultural roots which may occur despite racial differences. Ethnicity shapes a group's culture - food, language, music, and customs. We all have an ethnicity, but the term is often used only in reference to persons of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity versus those of non-Hispanic/Latino ethnicity.

Contents
  1. National Standards for Race Measurement
  2. Bridged Race Estimates
  3. Hawaii Health Data Warehouse Race Reporting Guidelines
References

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1. National Standards for Race Measurement


The U.S. Census Bureau collects race and Hispanic ethnicity as separate constructs. As a result, an individual has both a race and an Hispanic ethnicity designation (e.g., White Hispanic, White, non-Hispanic, Black Hispanic). This excerpt from the Federal Register1 describes the OMB's intent.

Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET
To provide flexibility and ensure data quality, separate questions shall be used wherever feasible for reporting race and ethnicity. When race and ethnicity are collected separately, ethnicity shall be collected first. If race and ethnicity are collected separately, the minimum designations are:

Race:

  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • Black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
  • White

Ethnicity:

  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Not Hispanic or Latino



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1977 Federal Office of Management of Budget (OMB) Standard


Prior to 2000, the standard for collection of race data was to ask for the individual's primary race. This standard was released in 1977 in DIRECTIVE NO. 15, RACE AND ETHNIC STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL STATISTICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTING2.

Race Categories in the 1977 OMB Standard
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian or Pacific Islander
  • Black
  • White


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1997 OMB Standard


In 1997, the OMB released a new minimum standard1 for maintaining, collecting, and presenting data on race and ethnicity for all Federal reporting purposes, effective October 30, 1997. The new standard, implemented in the 2000 decennial census, requires that individuals be asked to check all racial and ethnic categories that apply to them. In addition to multiple reporting, the "Asian or Pacific Islander" group was separated into two categories, "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander." The "Black" category was renamed, "Black or African American" and the term "Hispanic" was to be changed to "Hispanic or Latino." The OMB defines the race and ethnicity categories as follows:

Race Category Definitions

  • American Indian or Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment.
  • Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  • Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. Terms such as "Haitian" or "Negro" can be used in addition to "Black or African American."
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
  • White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
  • Hispanic or Latino is defined as follows: A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. The term, "Spanish origin," can be used in addition to "Hispanic or Latino."

Race data that have been collected using the 1997 standard may be reported in different ways.

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◊ Reporting by "Race Alone"


For reporting by "Race Alone," respondents who checked only one race are reported in that race category and respondents who checked more than one race are reported in a category labeled, "Two or more races." The categories are mutually exclusive, and the resulting tabulations should sum to the total population count.

Reporting Categories for the 1997 OMB Standard, "Race Alone" Reporting Method
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian alone
  • Black or African American alone
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander alone
  • White alone
  • Two or more races


Table 1: 2014 U.S. Census Bureau Hawaii Population Estimates by "Race Alone"


Race Alone Population Estimates
American Indian and Alaska Native alone 2,191
Asian alone 534,189
Black or African American alone 30,729
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 147,612
White alone 360,711
Some other race 13,830
Two or more races 330,299
TOTAL 1,419,561
Source: US Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program, Downloaded from http://factfinder.census.gov on September 29, 2015


Table 2: 2014 U.S. Census Bureau Hawaii Population Estimates by "Race Alone" and Hispanic Ethnicity


Race Alone Not Hispanic or Latino Hispanic or Latino TOTAL
American Indian and Alaska Native alone 2,651 3,705 6,356
Asian alone 16,360 516,011 532,371
Black or African American alone 3,316 31,548 34,864
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 9,733 131,553 141,286
White alone 52,237 326,086 378,323
Two or more races 58,942 267,419 326,381
TOTAL 143,239 1,276,322 1,419,561
Source: US Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program, Downloaded from http://factfinder.census.gov on September 29, 2015


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◊ Reporting by "Race Alone or in Combination"


For reporting by "Race Alone or in Combination," respondents who checked only one race are reported in that race category and respondents who checked more than one race are reported in EACH of the race categories that were checked. Because a multi-racial individual is reported in more than one race category, the categories are not mutually exclusive, and the resulting tabulations will sum to a figure that is greater than the total population count.

Reporting categories for the "Race Alone or in Combination" reporting method
  • American Indian or Alaska Native Alone or in Combination
  • Asian Alone or in Combination
  • Black or African-American Alone or in Combination
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Alone or in Combination
  • White Alone or in Combination


Table 3: 2014 U.S. Census Bureau Hawaii Population Estimates by "Race Alone or in Combination"


Race Alone or in Combination Population Estimates (1)
American Indian and Alaska Native alone or in combination with one or more other races 30,044
Asian alone or in combination with one or more other races 792,522
Black or African American alone or in combination with one or more other races 51,166
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone or in combination with one or more other races 362,880
White alone or in combination with one or more other races 605,053
TOTAL 1,984,356
Source: US Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program, Downloaded from http://factfinder.census.gov on September 29, 2015


In addition, Census 2000 also reported 63 categories for race, including both single race categories (e.g., "White alone," "Asian alone"), and all possible combinations of the multirace categories (e.g., "American Indian and White," "Asian and White," "Black or African American and White," "American Indian or Alaska Native and Black or African American").


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2. Bridged Race Estimates


Data collected using the 1997 standard are not directly comparable to those that were collected using the 1977 standard. To permit trend analysis, a methodology was developed to "bridge" population estimates that were collected using the 1997 standard back to the categories used in the 1977 standard. The bridging methodology3 applies a statistical model to individuals' responses that were collected using the 1997 standard and converts those responses to what they may have said had they been using the old single race categories from the 1977 standard. This presents yet another option for presentation of race data that were collected using the 1997 OMB standard, known as the "bridged race" method.

Table 4: 2010 Hawaii Population Estimates by Bridged Race and Hispanic Ethnicity


Race Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino TOTAL
American Indian and Alaska Native 3,052 4,229 7,281
Asian or Pacific Islander 69,096 853,886 922,982
Black or African American 5,611 40966 46,577
White 65,480 377,241 442,721
TOTAL 143,239 1,276,322 1,419,561
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), WONDER online database. Downloaded from http://wonder.cdc.gov on September 29, 2015.


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3. Hawaii Health Data Warehouse Race Reporting Guidelines


Given the racial diversity of Hawaii, HHDW tries to maintain as much detail as possible regarding self-reported race/ethnicity. These data are offered by three separate categorizations with increasing level of detail. The simplest is the Census Race/Ethnicity breakdown, consisting of six categories (see below). The standard choice for HHDW is the Department of Health (DOH) Race/Ethnicity breakdown, consisting of ten categories (see below). The most detailed option is the Program Race/Ethnicity, which includes 36 different categories (see below). This race/ethnicity breakout is the best option for identifying specific Pacific Islander and Asian races. However, the sample size is often small and may result in unstable estimates that cannot be reported.

CENSUS RACE/ETHNICITY DOH RACE/ETHNICITY PROGRAM RACE/ETHNICITY
Asian Black American Indian and Alaska Native
Black or African Amerian Caucasian Arab, North African, Iran
Native Alaskan/ American Indian Chinese Asian Indian
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Filipino Black
White Japanese Burmese
Other Native Alaskan/ American Indian Cambodian
Native Hawaiian Chinese
Other Asian Fijian
Other Pacific Islander Filipino
Other Greek/Mediterranean
Guamanian or Chamorro
Indonesian
Jamaican
Japanese
Korean
Laotian
Latino/a
Lebanese
Malaysian
Marquesa/Marshall/Gilbert/Pnesian/PI
Mexican
Micronesian
Native Hawaiian
Pakistani
Portuguese
Puerto Rican
Samoan/Tongan
Singaporean
Sri Lankan
Tahitian
Thai
Tongan
Vietnamese
White
Other Asian
Other


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References


1. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Downloaded from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg_1997standards/ on September 19, 2015.

2. Federal Register 7/9/97, Part II. Pages 36873-36946. OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET, Recommendations from the Interagency Committee for the Review of the Racial and Ethnic Standards to the Office of Management and Budget Concerning Changes to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Downloaded from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/directive_15.html#chap3 on September 19, 2015.

3. The Bridge Report: Tabulation Options for Trend Analysis. Downloaded from https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/information_and_regulatory_affairs/re_app-ctables.pdf on September 19, 2015.

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The information provided above is from the Hawaii Health Data Warehouse and the Hawaii State Department of Health's Hawaii-IBIS web site (http://ibis.hhdw.org/ibisph-view.). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Sun, 22 September 2019 10:16:50 from Hawaii State Department of Health, Hawaii Health Data Warehouse, Indicator-Based Information System for Public Health Web site: http://ibis.hhdw.org/ibisph-view ".

Content updated: Tue, 13 Oct 2015 15:20:52 HST